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  1. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often depends on disease severity and disease manifestations, [ 8] although hydroxychloroquine has a central role for long-term treatment in all SLE..
  2. Belimumab was recently approved as add-on therapy in autoantibody-positive SLE patients with high disease activity unresponsive to standard treatment. Short-term induction pulse therapy with low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide, as well as continued mycophenolate mofetil treatment are advances in lupus nephritis
  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), commonly known as lupus, is an autoimmune illness that affects many organs and systems in the body. Lupus is a chronic condition, but symptoms tend to cycle in alternate periods of flares (or flares-ups) and remissions. There is no known cure, but numerous treatments are available
  4. ed (≥50% respondents indicating ≥70% agreement). Results: Initially, 54% (n = 37) responded suggesting treatment for scenarios; 13 experts rated agreement with scenarios
  5. SLE treatment consists primarily of immunosuppressive drugs that inhibit activity of the immune system. Hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone) are often used to treat SLE. The FDA approved belimumab in 2011, the first new drug for SLE in more than 50 years
  6. Lupus treatment is the best way to manage your symptoms, feel better, and keep the disease from getting worse. Treatment for lupus-- also known as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) -- depends on..

The medications most commonly used to control lupus include: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Over-the-counter NSAIDs, such as naproxen sodium (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), may be used to treat pain, swelling and fever associated with lupus. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight The management of SLE depends on the system involved. All patients with SLE should receive education, counseling, and support. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) is the cornerstone of treatment because.. Use of immunomodulators and immunosuppression has altered the natural course of SLE. In addition, morbidity and mortality in SLE not only derive from direct immune mediated tissue damage but also from SLE and treatment associated complications such as accelerated coronary artery disease and increased infection risk

ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease presenting with varying degrees of organ and system involvement. Treatment currently includes antimalarials, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics Drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) can help control blood pressure. These drugs also prevent protein from leaking from the kidneys into the urine. Drugs called diuretics can help you get rid of excess fluid Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is guided by the individual patient's manifestations. Fever, rash, musculoskeletal manifestations, and serositis generally respond to treatment with.. Alternative treatments for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The following products are considered to be alternative treatments or natural remedies for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Their efficacy may not have been scientifically tested to the same degree as the drugs listed in the table above

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SLE poses formidable therapeutic challenges due to its heterogeneity and treatment decisions often cannot be guided by data of high quality. In this review, we attempt to provide insights regarding the treatment of SLE in everyday clinical practice, based on contemporary evidence and our own personal experience. We focus on common therapeutic issues and dilemmas arising in routine care. Treatment can vary depending on how severe your symptoms are and which parts of your body SLE affects. The treatments may include: anti-inflammatory medications for joint pain and stiffness, such.. There is no cure for SLE. Treatments may include NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, hydroxychloroquine, and methotrexate. Although corticosteroids are rapidly effective, long-term use results in side effects. Alternative medicine has not been shown to affect the disease

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Treatment & Management

Talk to your doctor if you have lupus symptoms. Page last reviewed: October 17, 2018. Content source: Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has several goals: (i) induction of a prompt response, aimed at controlling disease activity; (ii) maintenance therapy, aimed at maintaining the response and at preventing flares; and (iii) prevention and treatment of comorbidities (e. g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis systemic lupus erythematosus treatment Although there is no cure for lupus, a variety of treatments can reduce symptoms, limit damage to vital organs, and reduce the risk of recurrence. It's important to see your rheumatologist regularly hydroxychloroquine - a medicine that has historically been used to treat malaria, but can also help treat some symptoms of SLE corticosteroids - anti-inflammatory medications immunosuppressants - a group of medicines that suppress your immune syste

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares Management of mild SLE Treatments for mild non-organ threatening disease include the disease modifying drugs hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate, and short courses of NSAIDs for symptomatic control. These drugs allow for the avoidance of or dose reduction of corticosteroids SLE can affect many parts of the body in several ways. It can range from mild to severe. There is no cure, but early treatment can help to keep symptoms under control. The rest of this information is about SLE, which we will call lupus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus --Developing Medical Products for Treatment June 2010. Download the Final Guidance Document Read the Federal Register Notice

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosu

Depending on the symptoms and the affected organs, a person with SLE may receive one or more of the following types of medication: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include.. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects several organs (such as skin, joints and kidneys) and blood tests reveal circulating autoantibodies. The clinical features of SLE are highly variable and may overlap with other diseases and conditions. Skin involvement or cutaneous lupus (CLE) affects 80% of patients with SLE Show Your Skin Some Love by Giving It Everything It Needs to Glow. Drop by Our Clinic Now. We Want You to Get Clear and Blemish-Free Skin. Talk to Our Skin Experts Now Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune multisystem disease with a variable presentation and manifestations ranging from mild to severe or even life-threatening. There is an ongoing and unmet need for novel, disease-specific, effective and safe treatment modalities. The aim of this review is to summarize data on SLE treatment that have emerged over the last 3 years

Lupus eritematoso sistemico (LES) - Albanesi

4 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A review of the disease and treatment options Abstract Objective: To provide an up-to-date review of the etiology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic findings, and treatment options for systemic lupus erythematosus The current treatment approach for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as outlined in the recommendations by international medical associations including EULAR and the ACR, is mostly eminence.

Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) Diagnosis & Treatment

Treatment of SLE is individualized based upon patient preferences, disease activity and severity, and comorbidities . Patients require monitoring at regular intervals by a rheumatologist to optimize both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies and achieve treatment goals. Patients often have multiorgan system involvement and may require. Treatment. Treatment was covered by 5 guidelines. Recommendations focused on ensuring long-term surviv-al, preventing organ damage, and improving quality of life by controlling disease activity and minimizing comorbid-ities and drug toxicity (14). Treatment targets for SLE were defined as remission and prevention of flares (14), wit During this session, Barry Brause, MD, Director of Infectious Diseases at Hospital for Special Surgery, presented a comprehensive overview and update on infectious disease prevention, especially with regard to people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, or more commonly called lupus).He reviewed various infectious diseases, covering the ways that these diseases spread, the different types. Children who receive proper treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus generally do very well. Regular management of the child's symptoms can greatly improve their quality of life. Children with lupus may have a greater risk for early atherosclerosis (clogging of the arteries) and heart disease when they become adults In general, you should try to eat a nutritious, well-balanced, and varied diet that contains plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and moderate amounts of meats, poultry, and fish. One food for people with lupus to avoid is alfalfa. Alfalfa tablets have been associated with reports of a lupus-like syndrome or lupus flares

The supporting evidence is reviewed in the BSR guideline for the management of SLE which divides the treatment of lupus in to three sections covering mild, moderate and severe lupus. For advice about the use of drugs in pregnant lupus patients there is a separate BSR guideline on the use of drugs in rheumatic diseases in pregnancy and. treatment of SLE. Organ-specific forms of disease will be addressed in separate guidances. This guidance does not contain discussion of the general issues of clinical trial design o

Despite recent improvements in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), disease activity, comorbidities and drug toxicity significantly contribute to the risk of progressive irreversible damage accrual and increased mortality in patients with this chronic disease. Moreover, even lupus patients in remission often report residual symptoms, such as fatigue, which have a considerable. SLE is an inflammatory, multisystem autoimmune disease with protean clinical and laboratory manifestations and a variable course that most commonly affects women between 15-44 years of age. 1 Some Brazil-specific aspects like African descendancy and high tuberculosis incidence may increase SLE incidence and severity. 2,3 SLE is associated with a host of autoantibodies directed against nuclear. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), also known as lupus, is a disease of the immune system, which is estimated to affect more than 20,000 people in Australia and New Zealand. Symptoms can be vague and vary between people, and therefore diagnosis can be difficult. However, once diagnosed, a combination of prescribed treatment and lifestyle. Lupus is a disease of the immune system. Learn more about the symptoms, complication, causes, types, diagnosis, treatment, lifestyle changes, and outlook for lupus

Treatment Algorithms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosu

High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showing lobular

The treatment of SLE depends heavily on non-specific immune-suppressive medications. Belimumab was the first and to date the only biologic to be approved for the use of non-renal SLE. Over the last few years, several promising biologics have failed to prove their effectiveness in large phase III trials despite promising phase II data Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treatment Market - Scope of the Report. TMR's report on the global systemic lupus erythematosus treatment market studies the past as well as current growth trends and opportunities, to gain valuable insights of the indicators for the said market for the forecast period of 2019 to 2027 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an immune-mediated disease in which a dog's immune system begins to attack his own tissues. Every tissue in the body contains substances that may stimulate an immune system reaction. These substances are called antigens. When the immune system reacts to antigens, it produces proteins called antibodies.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) CD

Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is an autoantibody-mediated vesiculobullous disease in patients with SLE. Autoimmunity in BSLE is characterized by the presence of circulating anti-type VII collagen antibodies. BSLE patients often present with multiple, tense, clear fluid-filled vesicles and bullae overlying erythematous edematous plaques Treatment Options. The treatment for SLE may consist of medication and sunscreen. The medication for SLE may include immunosupressants such as corticosteroids (Prednisone) or cyclophosphamides. Anti-malaria drugs can also be effective in managing the canine systemic lupus erythematosus. If internal organs are affected, the dog will receive.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by multi-system manifestations. It is regarded as the prototypal connective tissue disease, 1 where the key pathogenesis relates to a dysfunctional immune system that results in over-production of various autoantibodies. Most of its pathology is mediated by either direct or indirect effects of these autoantibodies. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of childbearing age. The exact cause is still unknown, but hormonal and immunological features as well as genetic predisposition are considered likely etiological factors. The presentation of the disease is variable but usually characterized. Lupus is the short name for the condition called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It can cause various symptoms, the most common being joint pains, skin rashes and tiredness. Problems with kidneys and other organs can occur in severe cases. Treatment includes anti-inflammatory painkillers to ease joint pains The incidence of myocardial infarction in women with SLE aged 35-44 years First, when risk factors are examined quantitatively, SLE is 50-fold greater than in women of similar ages from a pop- and/or its treatment (most probably with corticosteroids) are ulation-based sample [2]

BackgroundSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can affect multiple systems. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has a close linkage with SLE. However, the inter-relational mechanisms between them are still unclear. This article aimed to explore the shared gene signatures and potential molecular mechanisms in SLE and PAH.MethodsThe microarray data of SLE and PAH in. Systemic lupus erythematosus (also known as SLE) can affect almost any organ or system. Discoid lupus is generally milder, with most people having only skin symptoms. Subacute cutaneous lupus is similar, but milder still. Drug-induced lupus is a reaction to a medicine that fades away after the medicine is stopped

Use: Treatment of patients with active, autoantibody-positive, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who are receiving standard therapy. Usual Pediatric Dose for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: 5 years and older: 10 mg/kg IV over 1 hour at 2-week intervals for the first 3 doses and at 4-week intervals thereafter Comments Ann-Merrie St. Croix, Virgin Islands (USA) Lupus (SLE) Read Story. Jennifer Bronx, NY Lupus (SLE) Read Story. Maria Johnna Noel Bronx, NY Deep Vein Thrombosis. Read Story. Patricia West Nyack, NY Lupus (SLE) Read Story. Brittany West Caldwell, NJ Knee Replacement

Facts to Know About Lupus. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system attacks various organs or cells of the body, causing damage and dysfunction.; Seek medical care for lupus if you have rapid swelling of one of your extremities, fever over 102 F, or acute abdominal pain or chest pain.; Lupus treatment may incorporate NSAIDs. By conservative estimates, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects approximately 161,000 people in the United States. 1 The disease is 8 to 10 times more likely to occur in women than in men, and 3 to 4 times more likely to affect African Americans than white Americans. 2 In addition to the higher prevalence, racial disparities have also been observed in the disease course and outcomes of. Confidential diagnosis and treatment available within 7 - 10 days, no GP referral required. No face to face appointment necessary. Single use disposable sleep studies also available

Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus consists of alleviating symptoms by adapting to the clinical situation of each affected person, for which there are many effective pharmacological groups . Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus is symptomatic. This is why there is no definitive etiological treatment to cure this disease Phase. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Drug: MRA 003 US. Phase 1. Detailed Description: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are elevated in both human and murine systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Blocking the action of IL-6 ameliorates disease activity in murine models of SLE. MRA is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the human IL-6 receptor In a recent phase II trial, treatment with baricitinib improved the signs and symptoms of active disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were receiving standard background therapy . The use of Baricitinib 4 mg treatment resulted in a greater proportion of patients achieving resolution of arthritis, as defined by Systemic.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treatment in Pittsburgh

Lupus Treatment: Medications and Alternative Treatment

Treatment. There is no cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms. Severe symptoms that involve the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs often need treatment from specialists. Each person with SLE needs evaluation regarding: How active the disease is; What part of the body is affected; What form of treatment is neede Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), more commonly known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disorder disproportionately affecting women (10 times more often than men) and causing various symptoms and in varying degrees for each person. This is a chronic condition with at present no known cure, but holistic treatment may significantly reduce your.

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SLE: Prognosis and Treatment Prognosis varies from mild to severe Prognosis varies from mild to severe or fatal. or fatal. Treatment is non-specific, and is not specific, and is not curative. curative. • NSAIDs • Hydroxychloroquine • Glucocorticoids • Cytotoxic, immunosuppressive drug Can reduce disease flare-ups and reduce damage accrual. Used alone or in combination with corticosteroids; their use may allow a reduction in concomitant corticosteroid dosing. William HJ, Egger MJ, Singer JZ, et al. Comparison of hydroxychloroquine and placebo in the treatment of the arthropathy of mild systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with characteristic exacerbations and remissions that affects multiple organ systems [2]. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs. The underlying cause is unknown. Disease Presentation. The symptoms of SLE [2,3] include

Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) is a complex and clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease. A variety of immunological defects contribute to SLE, including dysregulated innate and adaptive immune response. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms driving disease pathogenesis combined with recent advances in medical science is predicted to enable accelerated progress towards improved SLE. Ayurvedic Treatment For Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) also called Lupus, is a chronic, heterogeneous, inflammatory, multisystem autoimmune disease where immune system of the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissues considering them as foreign elements and produces antibodies against them As immunosuppressive therapy is the preferred treatment for DAH and pulmonary symptoms in SLE often are due to infections, antibiotic therapy is highly recommended until microbial cause of the disease has been excluded. 32 Infections are responsible for 22-25% of SLE patients deaths, which has in part been attributed to the therapies used. 33. Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting about 1.5 million Americans, with an estimated 16,000 newly diagnosed each year.  It is characterized by chronic inflammation causing pain, fatigue, swelling, skin lesions, joint stiffness, and adverse health effects that can impact the heart, lungs, blood cells, kidneys, and/or brain

Lupus - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): New Treatments for Mild and Severe. Elena Peeva, M.D., M.Sc., Gisele Zandman-Goddard, M.D., and Peter Barland, M.D. SLE sufferers should not take sulfonamide drugs. Dr. Peeva is an Instructor of Medicine and Attending Physician at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Attending Physician at Montefiore. Treatment. SLE affects people in different ways; therefore treatment is more effective when it is individual-specific. However, there is no cure for SLE. Treatment is aimed at reducing or easing symptoms. Use of immunosuppressive drugs, e.g., corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by high levels of autoantibody and multi-organ tissue damage [].Hair and scalp involvement is a common manifestation, presenting in more than half of the patients during the disease course [2,3,4].Alopecia, its typical symptom, manifests with non-scarring or scarring

Complications of systemic lupus erythematosus

2019 update of the EULAR recommendations for the

Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information Systemic lupus erythematosus: Lupus symptoms; Lupus is also known as butterfly rashes or SLE, which is a chronic autoimmune disease of the connective tissue and blood vessels. What kind of disease it is and how dangerous is it, have a look Lupus nephritis is a type of kidney disease caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus). Lupus is an autoimmune disease —a disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the body's own cells and organs

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Primary Care Approach to

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disorder which primarily affects women (10:1 female to male ratio), may affect virtually any organ.1 Predominant manifestations include non-deforming arthritis, serositis, photosensitivity, renal, haematological, and central nervous system involvement. Various laboratory abnormalities have been described in SLE, most commonly high titre. Treatments for more severe disease may include cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, or tacrolimus plus corticosteroids. Definition Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-system disorder that most commonly affects women during their reproductive years Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks and causes inflammation in its own tissues. Inflammation results in swelling, pain and other symptoms. As a result of SLE, the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, the nervous system and almost any other organ can be affected Treatment recommendations will be offered to patients' physicians, and patients who are eligible for other research treatment studies will be invited to enroll. This research protocol will evaluate subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their relatives to study the pathogenesis and natural history of the disease and the. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted fast track designation to RemeGen's RC18 (telitacicept) to treat people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A therapy candidate is put on the FDA's fast track program if it can treat serious conditions and fill an unmet clinical need, either because no treatments are currently available or because the potential treatment offers.

2015 GMC Canyon Nightfall Edition is a Killer-LookingFacial rash of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) - StockCerebral vasculitis as a primary manifestation of systemic

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnosis and Clinical

103 SLE is clinically a heterogeneous condition in terms of symptoms and signs, organ system involvement, 104 clinical course and treatment response. In general, SLE has a waxing and waning course, where 105 periods of relatively stable disease are followed by flares that can ultimately lead to irreversibl Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed. As the result of SLE, the cause of glomerulonephritis is said to be secondary and has a different pattern and outcome from conditions with a primary cause originating in the kidney

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Its Treatment, and Future

Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, MacInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelley and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier. require prompt treatment with moderate-to-high doses of steroids to minimise organ damage. Steroid-sparing immunosuppressive medications should be considered early to prevent steroid-related morbidities. Hydroxychloroquine is an effective treatment in SLE, especially for arthritis and rash. Furthermore, it has a protective effect in reducin What is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)? SLE's an autoimmune disease that can affect any tissue or organ in the body, but most often affects the skin, kid..

Lupus nephritis - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that affects the kidneys is called lupus nephritis. Lupus is an autoimmune disease, meaning your immune system (your body's defense system), which usually protects the body from disease, turns against the body. This causes harm to organs and tissues, like your kidneys. Lupus nephritis causes inflammation. Treatments Home \ Treatments There is at present no cure for lupus but careful monitoring of the disease and a treatment programme with medication adjusted as appropriate enables the condition to be controlled, most patients being able to live a normal life span Today, with careful treatment, 80 to 90 percent of people with lupus can expect to live a normal lifespan. We have found that with treatment, Lupus patients are able to live longer, said Dr. A research study in subjects with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus to evaluate the clinical activity of an investigational medication. 426 views. 23 Nov, 2020. 1 location. featured. Phase 2. For pediatric ages. For adults. For all genders

To cite this abstract in AMA style: Ding Y, Zack D, Burington B, Yang A, Merrill J, James J, Desjarlais J, Clynes R, Guthridge J. A Novel Biomarker Identifies Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) Patients Who Benefit from Obexelimab (XmAb®5871) Treatment [abstract] Aug. 25, 2020 — Most adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Dec. 18, 2019 — Researchers offer the first real hope for the treatment of lupus,. Lupus, also called systemic lupus erythematosus, is not always easy to diagnose because it can be similar to other conditions. Symptoms include inflammation of different parts of the body including the lungs, heart, liver, joints and kidneys. The GP will usually do some blood tests. High levels of a type of antibody, combined with typical. Systemic lupus erythematosus: A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body's tissues are attacked by its own immune system. Patients with lupus have unusual antibodies in their blood that are targeted against their own body tissues.. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system SLE treatments will vary depending on the affected organs. The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response that is causing damage. NSAIDs, immunosuppressive drugs. Differential diagnosis includes erythema multiforme, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), bullous pemphigoid, mastocytosis. Treatment includes elimination of known causes, antihistamines (H 1 and H 2 blockers), oral corticosteroids for acute flares, and, in refractory cases, immunosuppresants such as sulfasalazine and cyclosporine